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Parts of Speech: Nouns

Parts of Speech

We use thousand words everyday..to speak..to write..to read..to listen.. But, have you thought before that those so many words belongs only to 9 (NINE)  groups? 
Parts of speech are what we simply call word classes or word groups.  They are so basic but crucial to study that we can improve our English competencies, in speaking and listening, as well as reading and writing. Here they are:
  1. Nouns
  2. Pronouns
  3. Verbs
  4. Adjectives
  5. Adverbs
  6. Determiners
  7. Prepositions
  8. Conjunctions
  9. Interjections
NOUNS will be the first to expose.

NOUNS

What is your idea about Noun? It names people, things, places? Yes, It's correct. 
Look around you! You can mention the name of things, people, places around you. Do you see table? plate? chicken? your mom? bedroom? Everything you see, you can name. It fits the above definition that NOUN names people, things, places, or ideas. 

HOWEVER, you must note one thing. NOUNS are "WORDS" that name people, things, places, or ideas.  They are not actually people, things, places, or ideas.

When I read an article in www.english-grammar-revolution.com about NOUN, the author claimed that his students encountered some problems in recognizing NOUN. They were not really clear on the whole "word" thing. This happened to my students too. So, let me make this clear.

Choose the noun from the following pictures.

Picture 1

Picture 2










Picture 3

Picture 4

 If you choose Picture 1 and 3 on the left are NOUNS, you are correct. Why? It is first and foremost that NOUN is a WORD.

If you guessed that the one on the left is a noun, you are correct. Why? Well, what is a noun? It is first and foremost a word. Notice that while the image of the duck is the cuter of the two, it is not naming a duck. It is a duck.
Does that make sense? A noun is a word, not the actual thing that the word represents. It's kind of cool, huh?
Now, your task is to memorize the following definition.
Nouns are words that name people, places, things, or ideas.
Put on your memorizing cap and stick that sentence in there.
If you want this information at your fingertips, you can check out the Nouns and Pronouns Workbook.

The Noun Jobs

Nouns can do lots of things in sentences. They are probably the most overworked of all eight of the parts of speech.
Nouns have the ability to perform different functions, or jobs, in sentences.
Each time a noun is performing one of these jobs, it still fits the answer to the question, What is a noun?
Let's look at some of the noun jobs.
1. Subjects are nouns that tell us whom or what a sentence is about.
Mary kicked the ball.
2. Direct objects are nouns that receive the action of certain kinds of verbs (transitive active verbs).
Mary kicked the ball.
3. Indirect objects are nouns that receive the direct object.
Mary kicked Jimmy the ball.
4. Objects of prepositions are nouns that come after prepositions in prepositional phrases.
Mary kicked the ball to Jimmy.
5. Predicate nouns ("predicate nominatives") are nouns that rename the subject. They come after linking verbs.
Mary is a soccer player.
6. Object complements are nouns that complete the direct object.
They named the baby April.
So, how's it going? Am I confusing you?
If you feel overwhelmed, don't worry. Just keep reading and working. You'll get it. Once you start diagramming, you'll know all of this stuff without even trying too hard!
You should check out sentence diagramming if you haven't given it a shot yet. Sentence diagrams SHOW you how nouns act in sentences.
Learn how to diagram nouns, or learn basic sentence diagramming.

Types of Nouns









Structure Part

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Reading Comprehension

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Listening Comprehension

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Introduction to TOEFL



What is TOEFL?

TOEFL stands for Test of English as a Foreign Language. It is kind of test to measure the English competence in academic setting. This test must be taken by English non-native speakers wishing to study abroad. Nowadays, it is used as an admission requirement for not only colleges or universities in English-speaking Countries but also any English-speaking Universities in all over the world including Indonesia. Besides, institutions such as government agencies, licensing bodies, businesses, or scholarship programs may also require this test. However, we must also note that TOEFL tends to American English and is different with IELTS (International English Language Testing System) which tends to British English.

When someone has taken the test, they will get a certificate. It is only valid for two years since the candidate's language proficiency will probably change significantly as the time goes by. The universities or institutions will only consider the most recent score of TOEFL.  

Formats
  •  Internet-Based TOEFL
Since its introduction, the Internet-based Test (IBT) has progressively replaced both the computer-based tests (CBT) and paper-based tests (PBT), although paper-based testing is still used in some areas. There are 4 skills tested in IBT as follows:

  1. Reading
    The Reading section consists of 3–4 passages, each approximately 700 words in length and questions about the passages. The passages are on academic topics. Passages require understanding of rhetorical functions such as cause-effect, compare-contrast and argumentation. Students answer questions about main ideas, details, inferences, essential information, sentence insertion, vocabulary, rhetorical purpose and overall ideas.
  2. Listening
    The Listening section consists of six passages 3–5 minutes in length and questions about the passages. These passages include two student conversations and four academic lectures or discussions. Each conversation and lecture stimulus is heard only once. Test-takers may take notes while they listen and they may refer to their notes when they answer the questions. Each conversation is associated with five questions and each lecture with six. The questions are meant to measure the ability to understand main ideas, important details, implications, relationships between ideas, organization of information, speaker purpose and speaker attitude.
  3. Speaking
    The Speaking section consists of six tasks: two independent tasks and four integrated tasks. In the two independent tasks, test-takers answer opinion questions on familiar topics. They are evaluated on their ability to speak spontaneously and convey their ideas clearly and coherently. In two of the integrated tasks, test-takers read a short passage, listen to an academic course lecture or a conversation about campus life and answer a question by combining appropriate information from the text and the talk. In the two remaining integrated tasks, test-takers listen to an academic course lecture or a conversation about campus life and then respond to a question about what they heard. In the integrated tasks, test-takers are evaluated on their ability to appropriately synthesize and effectively convey information from the reading and listening material. Test-takers may take notes as they read and listen and may use their notes to help prepare their responses. Test-takers are given a short preparation time before they have to begin speaking. The responses are digitally recorded, sent to ETS’s Online Scoring Network (OSN) and evaluated by three to six raters.
  4. Writing
    The Writing section measures a test taker's ability to write in an academic setting and consists of two tasks: one integrated task and one independent task. In the integrated task, test-takers read a passage on an academic topic and then listen to a speaker discuss the same topic. The test-taker will then write a summary about the important points in the listening passage and explain how these relate to the key points of the reading passage. In the independent task, the test-taker must write an essay that states, explains, and supports their opinion on an issue, supporting their opinions or choices, rather than simply listing personal preferences or choices. Responses are sent to the ETS OSN and evaluated by four raters.
Task Description Approx. time
Reading 3–4 passages, each containing 12–14 questions 60–80 minutes
Listening 6–9 passages, each containing 5–6 questions 60–90 minutes
Break
10 minutes
Speaking 6 tasks and 6 questions 20 minutes
Writing 2 tasks and 2 questions 50 minutes
One of the sections of the test will include extra, uncounted material. Educational Testing Service includes extra material in order to pilot test questions for future test forms. When test-takers are given a longer section, they should give equal effort to all of the questions because they do not know which question will count and which will be considered extra. For example, if there are four reading passages instead of three, then three of those passages will count and one of the passages will not be counted. Any of the four passages could be the uncounted one.
 
 
 
Paper-Based TOEFL
 

Grammar Shit Shot

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Critical Reading

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